魏晋南北朝の社会~官吏登用編~

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官吏登用制度

漢代・・・郷挙里選

郷挙里選は地方の優秀な人物を官吏候補として、任命する制度であったが、
豪族がいろいろな影響力を駆使して、中央に推薦させて豪族が力をもってしまい、
本来とは異なるものになってしまった。

魏以降・・・九品中正(九品官人法)

九品中正は地方に中央から任命された中正官を置き、
郷里の評判によって9等級にわけて推薦した。
これを郷品という。
中央では郷品に基づいて官品が与えられた。
しかし、中正官も豪族であったために、
豪族の子弟だけが、高い官品に任命されるようになり、
貴族政治が行われ、彼ら同士で結婚し、
門閥貴族化(代々高級官僚をする家柄)し、
俗に「上品に寒門なく、下品に勢族なし」と言われた。
※寒門・・・貴族より低い家柄
※勢族・・・有力な貴族

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